M601 Masters Seminar in Musicology: Attribution and Authenticity                    Daniel R. Melamed
Jacobs School of Music, Indiana University                                                                        Spring 2020


Tue 14 Jan    1. Introduction
Thu 16 Jan     
Tue  21 Jan   2. Josquin, "Absalon, fili mi"
Thu  23 Jan     

Tue 28 Jan
Thu 30 Jan   3. Mozart, "Odense" symphony K. 16a                         

Tue    4 Feb  
Thu    6 Feb 
Tue  11 Feb  4. W.S., Funeral elegy for William Peter 
Thu  13 Feb  no class      
Tue  18 Feb   
Thu  20 Feb    
Tue  25 Feb   5. Connoisseurship and the study of painting
Thu  27 Feb    
Tue    3 Mar   6. Forgery 
Thu    5 Mar
Tue  10 Mar   7. The "new" Haydn sonatas (guest: Frederick Reece)
Thu  12 Mar
Spring break
Tue  31 Mar    8. Stephen Rose, Musical Authorship from Schütz to Bach
Thu    2 Apr   
Tue    7 Apr    9. Computer studies
Thu    9 Apr  
Tue  14 Apr   10. The Wrecking Crew
Thu  16 Apr   
Tue  21 Apr   11. Presentations
Thu  23 Apr   
Tue  28 Apr   12. Presentations
Thu  30 Apr     



Studies in the attribution of musical compositions from the Middle Ages to the present.


Prof. Daniel R. Melamed    M325C, dmelamed (AT) indiana.edu
Office hours: By appointment (e-mail to arrange). E-mail questions are welcome at any time.

Course information, assignments, reserve lists and this schedule can be found at http://dmelamed.pages.iu.edu/M601-Attribution-2020.htm, also reachable through  http://attribution.melamed.org.



The course grade will be based on presentations, participation and the final paper. There will be no examinations.


Jessica Bachman

Bradley Berg

Claire Buchanan

Adam Dillon

Julie Howe       

Daniel R. Melamed

Tawnya Morse

Joseph Stiefel


1. Introduction

John Spitzer. "Authorship and attribution in Western art music." Chapter 1,"Introduction: musical authorship as a problem," 1-49; chapter 8, "Conclusions: authorship and art in Western society," 414-61. Ph.D. diss. Cornell, 1983.

Richard Boursy. "Historicism and composition: Giuseppe Baini, the Sistine Chapel choir, and stile antico music in the first half of the 19th century." Chapter 5, "Reflections on innovation, style, and historiography," 182-219. Ph.D. diss. Yale, 1994.


2. Josquin, "Absalon, fili mi"

Scores at two pitches: Low    High

Recording: New York Polyphony    

Study the motet and the literature on its attribution. What kinds of evidence are there? What sorts of arguments are made? What is at stake in the attribution?


Patrick Macey and Jeremy Noble. "Josquin des Prez. §10. Works: canon and chronology." Grove Music Online.

Douglas E. Thompson. "A Summary of Current Debates Regarding Josquins Biography and the Attribution of Absalon fili mi," Choral Journal 42 (2001): 25-31.


Helmuth Osthoff. Josquin Desprez. 2 vols. Tutzing, 1962-5. Pp. 108-11. [ML410.D367 O8]

Joshua Rifkin. "Problems of authorship in Josquin: some impolitic observations, with a postscript on 'Absalon fili mi.'" In Proceedings of the international Josquin symposium, Utrecht, 1986, ed. Willem Elders, 45-52. Utrecht, 1991. [ML410.D367 P7]

Jaap van Benthem. "Lazarus versus Absalom: about fiction and fact in the Netherlands motet." Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 39 (1989: 54-82.

Nigel Davison. "Absalom fili mi Reconsidered." TVNM 46 (1996): 42–56.

Honey Meconi. "Another Look at Absalon." TVNM 48 (1998): 3–29.

Peter Urquhart. "Another Impolitic Observation on Absalon, fili mi." Journal of Musicology 21 (2004): 343-80.

Jennifer Thomas. "Absalon fili mi, Josquin, and the French royal court: Attribution, authenticity, context, and conjecture." In Uno gentile et subtile ingenio: Studies in Renaissance music in honour of Bonnie J. Blackburn. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009.

Analytical studies

Edward Lowinsky. Secret chromatic art in the Netherlands motet. New York, 1946. [ML184 .L9]

Robert Toft. "Pitch Content and Modal Procedure in Josquin's Absalon, fili mi." TVNM 33 (1983): 3–27. [ML5 .V488]

Honey Meconi. "The range of mourning: Nine questions and some answers." In Tod in Musik und Kultur: Zum 500. Todestag Philipps des Schönen (2007). Tutzing: Schneider, 2007.

Candace Brower, "Paradoxes of pitch space," Music analysis 27 (2008): 51-

John Milsom. "Surface, structure and 'style' in Absalon fili mi." In Essays on Renaissance music in honour of David Fallows: Bon jour, bon mois, et bonne estrenne. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011.


3. Mozart, "Odense" symphony K. 16a

Score: NMA    Critical report

Recording: Graf

Jens Peter Larsen and Kamma Wedin, eds. Die Sinfonie KV 16a "del Sigr. Mozart": Bericht über das Symposium in Odense anlässlich der Erstaufführung des wiedergefundenen Werkes, Dezember 1984. Odense, 1987. [ML410.M9 S54]

Neal Zaslaw and Cliff Eisen. "Signor Mozart's symphony in A minor, K. Anhang 220=16a." Journal of Musicology 4 (1985-86): 191-206. [ML1 .J693]. Essentially identical version in Neal Zaslaw. Mozart's symphonies: context, performance practice, reception, 265-81. Oxford, 1989. [ML410.M9 Z28]

Scott Fruehwald. "The authenticity of the symphony in A minor (K.16a) attributed to Mozart: A stylistic study." College Music Symposium 28 (1988): 24-29. [ML1 .C69]

Cliff Eisen. "Problems of authenticity among Mozart's early symphonies: The example of K.Anh. 220(16a) and 76(42a)." Music and Letters 70 (1989): 505-513. [ML5 .M838]


Wolfgang Plath. "Literatur zu Echtheitsfragen bei Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." In Opera incerta, 285-300. Stuttgart, 1991.

Jan LaRue. A catalogue of 18th-century symphonies. Vol. 1. Thematic identifier. Bloomington, 1988. [Ref ML128.S98 L37]

"Lambach" symphony K. 45a

Anna Amalie Abert. "Methoden der Mozartforschung. Mozart-Jahrbuch 1964: 22-7. [ML410.M9 A12]

Anna Amalie Abert. "Stilistischer Befund und Quellenlage. Zu Mozarts Lambacher Sinfonie KV Anh. 221 = 45a." In Festschrift Hans Engel zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Horst Heussner, 43-56. Cassel, 1964. [ML55.E52 H5]

Gerhard Allroggen. "Mozarts Lambacher Sinfonie. Gedanken zur musikalischen Stilkritik." In Festschrift Georg von Dadelsen zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Thomas Kohlhase and Volker Scherliess, 7-19. Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 1978. [ML55 .D17 1978]

Neal Zaslaw. "The 'Lambach' symphonies of Wolfgang and Leopold Mozart." In Music and civilization. Essays in honor of Paul Henry Lang, ed. Edmond Strainchamps et al., 15-28. New York, 1984. [ML55 .L263]. Essentially identical version in Neal Zaslaw. Mozart's symphonies: context, performance practice, reception, 127-45.

Robert Münster. "Neue Funde zu Mozarts symphonischem Jugendwerk." Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum 30, no. 1/2 (1982): 2-11. [ML410.M9 A56]

4. W.S., Funeral elegy for William Peter

The original text

A FVNERALL Elegye / In memory of the late Vertuous Maister William Peter / of Whipton neere / Excester. London: G. Eld for T. Thorpe, 1612.

STC entry     Transcription

Shakespeare studies

Stanley Wells, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge, 1986. [Wells PR2976 .C29 1986]

The Shakespeare attribution problem

Irvin Leigh Matus. Shakespeare, in fact. New York, 1994. [Wells PR2939 .M36 1994; on reserve at the Music Library]

Web sites on Shakespeare authorship

"Stratfordist": https://shakespeareauthorship.com/         https://oxfraud.com/
"Oxford theory:" http://www.shakespeare-oxford.com/

The study

Donald W. Foster. Elegy by W.S.: a study in attribution. Newark, 1989. [Wells PR2199.F863 F67 1989; on reserve in the Music Library]

Foster on SHAXICON


Giles E. Dawson. Shakespeare Quarterly 41 (1990): 128- .

Richard Proudfoot. TLS 8 June 1990: 619-620.


An extensive online debate

William H. Honan. "A Sleuth Gets His Suspect: Shakespeare." New York Times 14 January 1996: 1, 25.

Stanley Wells. "In memory of Master William Peter." TLS 26 January 1996: 28- .

Richard Abrams. "In defence of W.S.: reasons for attributing 'A Funeral Elegy' to Shakespeare." TLS 9 February 1996: 25-6.

Brian Vickers. "Whose thumbprints? A more plausible author for 'A Funeral Elegy.' TLS 8 March 1996: 16-18.
Richard Abrams. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 22 March 1996: 17.

Katherine Duncan-Jones. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 29 Mar 1996: 17.

Donald W. Foster. "The `Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 29 March 1996: 17.

Brian Vickers. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the Editor. TLS 12 April 1996: 17.

Richard Abrams. "W[illiam] S[hakespeare]'s 'Funeral Elegy' and the turn from the theatrical." Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 36 (1996): 435-60.

Donald W. Foster. "A Funeral Elegy: W(illiam) S(hakespeare)'s 'Best-Speaking Witnesses.'" Publications of the Modern Language Association 111 (1996): 1080-1105.

Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza. "And Then There Were None: Winnowing the Shakespeare Claimants." Computers and the Humanities 30 (1996): 191-245.

Donald Foster."Response to Elliott and Valenza. 'And Then There Were None."Computers and the Humanities 30 (1996): 247-55.

Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza. "Glass Slippers and Seven-League Boots: C-Prompted Doubts about Ascribing A Funeral Elegy and A Lover's Complaint to Shakespeare." Shakespeare Quarterly 48 (1997): 177-207.

Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza. "The Professor Doth Protest Too Much, Methinks: Problems with the Foster 'Response.'" Computers and the Humanities 32 (1998):  425-490.

Donald Foster."The Claremont Shakespeare Authorship Clinic." Computers and the Humanities 32 (1998): 491-510.

Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza. "Smoking Guns, Silver Bullets: Could John Ford Have Written the Funeral Elegy?" Literary and Linguistic Computing 16:205-32 [2001].

Gilles D. Monsarrat "A Funeral Elegy: Ford, W.S., and Shakespeare" in The Review of English Studies 53:186-203 [May 2002].

Hugh Craig. "Common-words frequencies, Shakespeare's style, and the Elegy by W. S." Early Modern Literary Studies 8.1 (May, 2002).

Brian Vickers. Counterfeiting Shakespeare: Evidence, Authorship and John Ford's "Funerall Elegye." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Preface

Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza. "So Many Hardballs, so Few over the Plate: Conclusions from Our "Debate" with Donald Foster." Computers and the Humanities 34 (2002): 455-60.




William S. Niederkorn. "A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare' Discovery." New York Times 20 June 2002.

Ron Rosenbaum. "Literary Sleuth Absolves Bard of a Bad Poem." Observer, 24 June 2002.


5. Connoisseurship and the study of painting

Giovanni Morelli. Italian painters: critical studies of their works. 2 vols. London, 1892-3. [Fine Arts ND611 .M84213; on reserve at the Music Library].  Preface [40] - [49]; Principles and Method, 1-63; The Borghese Collection 64-82. [pdf here]

Richard Wollheim. "Giovanni Morelli and the origins of scientific connoisseurship." In On art and the mind, 177-201. Cambridge, Mass., 1974. [Fine Arts N71 .W864 1974; on reserve at the Music Library]

Bernard Berenson. "The Rudiments of Connoisseurship (A Fragment)." In The Study and Criticism of Italian Art, Second Series, 111-148. [pdf here]

Tiffany L. Johnston. "The Correggiosity of Correggio: On the Origin of Berensonian Connoisseurship." I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 19, no. 2 (Fall 2016): 385–425.

David Alan Brown. "Introduction." In Berenson and the Connoisseurship of Italian Painting. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1979. [ND615 .B76; on reserve at the Music Library]

Nelson Goodman. "Authenticity." Grove Art Online.  [an older version of the entry]

Enrico Castelnuovo, Jaynie Anderson, and Anna Tummers. "Connoisseurship. §1. The western world." Grove Art Online.

E. Samuels. Bernard Berenson: The Making of a Connoisseur. Cambridge, MA, and London, 1979. [N7483.B4 S25; on reserve at the Music Library]


6. Forgery

Thierry Lenain. "Forgery." Grove Art Online.

Alfred Lessing. "What Is Wrong with a Forgery?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 23 (1965): 461-471.

Leonard B. Meyer. "Forgery and the anthropology of art." In Music, the arts, and ideas: patterns and predictions in twentieth-century culture. Chicago, 1967. Reprinted in The forgers' art, 77-92.

Hope B. Werness. "Han van Meegeren fecit." In The forger's art, 1-57.

Nelson Goodman. "Art and authenticity." In The forger's art, 93-114.

Jack W. Meiland. "Originals, copies and aesthetic value." In Denis Dutton, ed. The forger's art: forgery and the philosophy of art , 115-30. Berkeley, 1983. [Fine Arts N8790 .F67 1983]
Dennis Dutton. "Artistic crimes." In The forger's art, 172-87.

7. The "new" Haydn sonatas (guest: Frederick Reece)

Westphalian Manuscript” from the H. C. Robbins Landon Collection, Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University (Box 78; Folder 11).

Winfried Michel. Forged “Haydn” Sonata in B Major, “Hob. XVI:2c,” mvt. 1.

Score    Recording (Paul Badura-Skoda)

Barry Millington. ‘‘Lost Haydn Sonatas Found in Germany.’’ Times (London), 14 December 1993, 1, 29.

Peter Lennon. ‘‘A Haydn to Nothing.’’ Guardian, 4 January 1994, A3.

Michael Beckerman, “All right, so Maybe Haydn didn’t write them. So what?” New York Times, 15 May 1994.

James Webster. “Haydn Forgeries: More than Sour Notes.” New York Times, 29 May 1994.


Please read the four newspaper articles (in chronological order) to get a sense of how the story unfolded, how it was covered in the media, and the debates in provoked among musicologists. What resonances are there with the secondary literature on forgery from last week?

Then look closely at the attached sonata score and the supposedly-early-nineteenth-century MS that Landon and the Badura-Skodas were taken in by. How do you read them in light of the articles and the knowledge that they are forgeries?



8. Stephen Rose, Musical Authorship from Schütz to Bach

Stephen Rose, Musical Authorship from Schütz to Bach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Please read this book in preparation for our discussion of it and the issues it raises.


9. Computer studies

Jan LaRue. "New directions for style analysis." In Musicology and the computer: three symposia, ed. Barry S. Brook, 194-7. New York, 1970. [ML3797.1 .M875]
Lewis Lockwood. "A stylistic investigation of the Masses of Josquin des Prez with the aid of the computer: a progress report." In Musicology and the computer: three symposia, 19-27.
John Morehen. "Statistics in the analysis of musical style." In Informatique et musique. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Computers and Musicology, Orsay, 1981. Paris: CNS, pp. 169-183.
Arthur Mendel. "Towards objective criteria for establishing chronology and authenticity: what help can the computer give?" In Josquin des Prez : proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference held at the Juilliard School at Lincoln Center in New York City, 21-25 June 1971. London, 1976. Pp. 297-308.
M. A. Crerar. "Elements of a Statistical Approach to the Question of Authorship in Music." Computers and the Humanities 19 (1985): 175-82.
John Morehen. "Byrd's manuscript motets: A new perspective." Byrd studies, 51-62. Cambridge, 1992.
David Wulstan. 1995. “Byrd, Tallis, and Ferrabosco.” English choral practice (1400–1650): A memorial volume to Peter Le Huray, ed. John Morehen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Mark Knoll. "Which Bach Wrote What?" Ph. D. diss. University of Michigan, 1998.
Peter Van Kranenburg and Eric Backer. "Musical Style Recognition--A Quantitative Approach." In Proceedings of the Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM04), Graz/Austria, 15-18 April 2004.
Peter Van Kranenburg. "Assessing Disputed Attributions for Organ Fugues in the J. S. Bach Catalogue." Tonal Theory for the Digital Age. Computing in Musicolgy 15 (2007): 120-37.
Marshall Stoneham et al. "What Constitutes Proof: Challenges in Wind Harmony Music." Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 35 (2010): 122-37.
The Josquin Research Project. https://josquin.stanford.edu/.


10. The Wrecking Crew

This week we will look at the California studio musicians known as the Wrecking Crew. Our aim will be to see what can be brought to the understanding of the music they produced using the concepts and tools of attribution studies. Here are a couple of resources--a documentary film and an article on bassist Carol Kaye. Please supplement this with sources and readings that will help elucidate the issues. (Starting points might be literature cited in the article.)

The Wrecking Crew (2015)

Brian F. Wright. "Reconstructing the History of Motown Session Musicians: The Carol Kaye/James Jamerson Controversy." Journal of the Society for American Music 31 (2019): 78-109.