M598, Spring 2001: Authenticity and attribution (D. Melamed)


10 January    1. Introduction
17 January    2. Josquin, "Absalon, fili mi"
24 January    3. Josquin (cont.)
31 January    4. Mozart, Symphonies K. 16a ("Odense"), K.45a ("Lambach")
  7 February  5. W.S., Funeral elegy for William Peter
14 February  6. Elegy (cont.)
21 February  7. Musical style analysis and computer studies
28 February  8. Connoisseurship and the study of painting
  7 March      9. Forgery
14 March           [spring break]
21 March           [no class]
28 March     10. J. S. Bach flute sonatas
  4 April       11. Pergolesi
11 April       12. Presentations: 1. R. Asai                      2. G. Laycock                        3. K. Domingo
18 April       13. Presentations: 1. D. Chang                   2. S. Florini                            3. S. Beutter
25 April       14. Presentations: 1. B. Dudeck-Wiseman  2. B. Kissell                           3. A. Schaffer

Topic: Studies in the attribution of musical compositions from the Middle Ages to the present. Topics will include the kinds of evidence and arguments used for attributions; standards of proof; the role of style analysis; the interaction of biography, historiography, and attribution; the use of computers and statistics; the making of complete works editions; fakes and forgeries; comparative studies in art history, including the concept of connoisseurship; comparative studies in literature, including "stylometrics"; modern criticism and constructions of authorship; concepts of authorship in earlier periods, in popular and vernacular music, and in music of other cultures. Case studies will include works attributed to Ockeghem, Josquin, Monteverdi, J. S. Bach, Pergolesi, Haydn (including the “new” piano sonatas), Mozart, Shakespeare and Vermeer.

Instructor: Daniel R. Melamed, dmelamed (AT) indiana.edu , MU011, (85)5-1738; office hours by appointment
Course page
: http://dmelamed.pages.iu.edu 
Class meetings
: The seminar will meet Wednesdays, 12.30-3.30 in M263.

Requirements: Attendance at all seminar meetings; weekly readings and class preparation; presentations on readings; active participation in discussions; presentation and final paper.

Paper: C. 20-40pp. on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor. Papers must be submitted in electronic form at least one week before the scheduled presentation so they can be read by class members. Presentations will consist of a brief overview by the author and a discussion of the paper.



Sample topics 

Concepts of authorship in other cultures
Concepts of authorship in earlier periods of Western music
Concept of authorship outside art music
Indeterminancy, chance, and the concept of authorship
Post-modern constructions of authorship

   Entführung wind arrangement
   Four-wind concertante
   Der Stein der Weisen

  "Non sa che sia dolore" BWV 209
   Neumeister organ chorales
   Toccata and fugue in d minor
  "Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft" BWV 50


1. Introduction

Georg von Dadelsen. "Methodische Bemerkungen zur Echtheitskritik." In Über Bach und anderes. Aufsätze und Vorträge, ed. Arnold Feil and Thomas Kohlhase, 120-4. Laaber, 1983. [Photocopy]

John Spitzer. "Authorship and attribution in Western art music." Chapter 1,"Introduction: musical authorship as a problem," 1-49; chapter 8, "Conclusions: authorship and art in Western society," 414-61. Ph.D. diss. Cornell, 1983. [MT90 .S7]

Richard Boursy. "Historicism and composition: Giuseppe Baini, the Sistine Chapel choir, and stile antico music in the first half of the 19th century." Chapter 5, "Reflections on innovation, style, and historiography," 182-219. Ph.D. diss. Yale, 1994. [ML410.B17412 B68 1994a]

2, 3. Josquin


Patrick Macey and Jeremy Noble. "Josquin des Prez. §10. Works: canon and chronology." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. 2nd edn. London, 2000. [http://bert.lib.indiana.edu:2095/grovemusic/script/article.asp?section=14497.10]

"Absalon, fili mi"

Score: Josquin Desprez (attrib.). "Absalon, fili mi." In Werken van Josquin des Prez, edited by A. Smijers. Supplement, 22-25. Amsterdam, 1969. [M3 .D42 V]

Recordings:  Ars Nova; Hilliard Ensemble 


Helmuth Osthoff. Josquin Desprez. 2 vols. Tutzing, 1962-5. Pp. 108-11. [ML410.D367 O8]

Joshua Rifkin. "Problems of authorship in Josquin: some impolitic observations, with a postscript on 'Absalon fili mi.'" In Proceedings of the international Josquin symposium, Utrecht, 1986, ed. Willem Elders, 45-52. Utrecht, 1991. [ML410.D367 P7]

Jaap van Benthem. "Lazarus versus Absalom: about fiction and fact in the Netherlands motet." Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 39 (1989): 54-82.

Nigel Davison. "Absalom fili mi Reconsidered." TVNM 46 (1996): 42–56.

Honey Meconi. "Another Look at Absalon." TVNM 48 (1998): 3–29.

Analytical studies

Edward Lowinsky. Secret chromatic art in the Netherlands motet. New York, 1946. [ML184 .L9]

Robert Toft. "Pitch Content and Modal Procedure in Josquin's Absalon, fili mi." TVNM 33 (1983): 3–27. [ML5 .V488]


Edgar H. Sparks. "Problems of authenticity in Josquin's motets." In Josquin des Prez. Proceedings of the Josquin festival-conference, ed. Edward E. Lowinsky and Bonnie J. Blackburn, 345-59. London, 1976. [ML410 .D367 I6 1971]

James Haar. "A sixteenth-century attempt at music criticism." JAMS 36 (1983): 191-209. [ML1.A51 J8]

Patrick Macey. "Celi enarrant: an inauthentic Psalm motet attributed to Josquin." In Proceedings of the international Josquin symposium, Utrecht, 1986, ed. Willem Elders, 25-44. Utrecht, 1991. [ML410.D367 P7]

Martin Just. "Zur Frage der Autorschaft in den Josquin des Prez zugeschriebenen Werken: Ein Überblick." In Opera incerta: Echtheitsfragen als Problem musikwissenschaftlicher Gesamtausgaben: Kolloquium Mainz 1988, ed. Hanspeter Bennwitz, 301-314. Stuttgart, 1991). [ML3797 .O6]

Patrick Macey. "Josquin as classic: Qui habitat, Memor esto, and two imitations unmasked." Journal of the Royal Musical Association 118 (1993): 1-43. [ML28.L8 M8]

Stephanie P. Schlagel. "Josquin des Prez and his motets: a case study in sixteenth-century reception history." Pp. 189-206. Ph.D. diss. UNC-Chapel Hill, 1996. [ML410.D367 S353 1996a]

Who was Josquin?

Claudio Sartori. "Josquin des Prés, cantore del duomo di Milano (1459–1472)." Annales musicologiques 4 (1956): 55–83. [ML5 .A61]

David Fallows. "Josquin and Milan." Plainsong and Medieval Music 5 (1996): 69–80. [ML170 .P52]

Pamela F. Starr. "Josquin, Rome, and a Case of Mistaken Identity." Journal of Musicology 15 (1997): 43–65. [ML1 .J693]

Lora Matthews. "Josquin Desprez and Ascanio Sforza: a Singer in the Cardinal's Retinue." In Chant and its Peripheries: Essays in Honour of Terence Bailey, ed. B. Gillingham and P. Merkley, 359–69. Ottawa, 1998. [Frontlog Books AKU7010]

Lora Matthews and Paul Merkley. "Iudochus de Picardia and Jossequin Lebloitte dit Desprez: the Names of the Singer(s)." Journal of Musicology 16 (1998): 200–226.

4. Mozart


Wolfgang Plath. "Literatur zu Echtheitsfragen bei Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." In Opera incerta, 285-300. Stuttgart, 1991.

Jan LaRue. A catalogue of 18th-century symphonies. Vol. 1. Thematic identifier. Bloomington, 1988. [Ref ML128.S98 L37]

"Odense" symphony K. 16a

Jens Peter Larsen and Kamma Wedin, eds. Die Sinfonie KV 16a "del Sigr. Mozart": Bericht über das Symposium in Odense anlässlich der Erstaufführung des wiedergefundenen Werkes, Dezember 1984. Odense, 1987. [ML410.M9 S54]

Neal Zaslaw and Cliff Eisen. "Signor Mozart's symphony in A minor, K. Anhang 220=16a." Journal of Musicology 4 (1985-86): 191-206. [ML1 .J693]. Essentially identical version in Neal Zaslaw. Mozart's symphonies: context, performance practice, reception, 265-81. Oxford, 1989. [ML410.M9 Z28]

Scott Fruehwald. "The authenticity of the symphony in A minor (K.16a) attributed to Mozart: A stylistic study." College Music Symposium 28 (1988): 24-29. [ML1 .C69]

Cliff Eisen. "Problems of authenticity among Mozart's early symphonies: The example of K.Anh. 220(16a) and 76(42a)." Music and Letters 70 (1989): 505-513. [ML5 .M838]

"Lambach" symphony K. 45a

Anna Amalie Abert. "Methoden der Mozartforschung. Mozart-Jahrbuch 1964: 22-7. [ML410.M9 A12]

Anna Amalie Abert. "Stilistischer Befund und Quellenlage. Zu Mozarts Lambacher Sinfonie KV Anh. 221 = 45a." In Festschrift Hans Engel zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Horst Heussner, 43-56. Cassel, 1964. [ML55.E52 H5]

Gerhard Allroggen. "Mozarts Lambacher Sinfonie. Gedanken zur musikalischen Stilkritik." In Festschrift Georg von Dadelsen zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Thomas Kohlhase and Volker Scherliess, 7-19. Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 1978. [ML55 .D17 1978]

Neal Zaslaw. "The 'Lambach' symphonies of Wolfgang and Leopold Mozart." In Music and civilization. Essays in honor of Paul Henry Lang, ed. Edmond Strainchamps et al., 15-28. New York, 1984. [ML55 .L263]. Essentially identical version in Neal Zaslaw. Mozart's symphonies: context, performance practice, reception, 127-45.

Robert Münster. "Neue Funde zu Mozarts symphonischem Jugendwerk." Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum 30, no. 1/2 (1982): 2-11. [ML410.M9 A56]

5, 6. W.S., Funeral elegy for William Peter

Shakespeare studies

Stanley Wells, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge, 1986. [Res Coll PR2976 .C29 1986]

The Shakespeare attribution problem

Irvin Leigh Matus. Shakespeare, in fact. New York, 1994. [Res Coll PR2939 .M36 1994]

Web sites on Shakespeare authorship

"Stratfordist": http://www.clark.net/pub/tross/ws/will.html
"Oxford theory:" http://www.shakespeare-oxford.com/

The original text

A FVNERALL Elegye / In memory of the late Vertuous Maister William Peter / of Whipton neere / Excester. London: G. Eld for T. Thorpe, 1612. STC: 21526.



The study

Donald W. Foster. Elegy by W.S.: a study in attribution. Newark, 1989. [Res Coll PR2199.F863 F67 1989]


Giles E. Dawson. Shakespeare Quarterly 41 (1990): 128- .

MacDonald P. Jackson. Shakespeare Survey Annual 43 (1990): 255- .

Richard Proudfoot. TLS 8 June 1990: 619-620.

Newspaper coverage

William H. Honan. "A Sleuth Gets His Suspect: Shakespeare." New York Times 14 January 1996: 1, 25.

An exchange in the TLS

Stanley Wells. "In memory of Master William Peter." TLS 26 January 1996: 28- .

Richard Abrams. "In defence of W.S.: reasons for attributing 'A Funeral Elegy' to Shakespeare. TLS 9 February 1996: 25-6.

Brian Vickers. "Whose thumbprints? A more plausible author for 'A Funeral Elegy.' TLS 8 March 1996: 16-18.
Richard Abrams. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 22 March 1996: 17.

Katherine Duncan-Jones. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 29 Mar 1996: 17.

Donald W. Foster. "The `Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the editor. TLS 29 March 1996: 17.

Brian Vickers. "The 'Funeral Elegy' for William Peter." Letter to the Editor. TLS 12 April 1996: 17.

Other writings by the principal proponents

Richard Abrams. "Elegy by W.S.: The State of the Argument." The Shakespeare Newsletter 45.3 (1995): 51-52.

Richard Abrams. "W[illiam] S[hakespeare]'s 'Funeral Elegy' and the turn from the theatrical." Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 36 (1996): 435-60.

Donald W. Foster. "A Funeral Elegy: W(illiam) S(hakespeare)'s 'Best-Speaking Witnesses.'" Publications of the Modern Language Association 111 (1996): 1080-1105.

An extensive e-mail debate on the Elegy


Foster on SHAXICON

Shakespeare Newsletter 1991 Summer Fall Winter
Shakespeare Newsletter 1995 Summer

7. Musical style analysis and computer studies

Style analysis
Mark Ellis. "Are traditional statistical models valid for quantitative musical analysis?" In Informatique et musique: second symposium international, 185-95. Ivry, 1981.

Scott Fruehwald. "A method for determining authenticity by style." Journal of musicological research 5 (1985): 297-317.

Lynn Trowbridge. "Style Change in the Fifteenth-Century Chanson." Journal of musicology 4 (1985–6): 146–70.
Jan LaRue. "Mozart authentication by activity analysis." Mozart-Jahrbuch 1978/79: 209-14.
Jan LaRue. Guidelines for style analysis. 2nd edn. Warren, Mich., 1992. [MT6 .L336 1992]

Barry S. Brook. "Determining authenticity through internal analysis: a multi-faceted approach (with special reference to Haydn's string trios)." In Bericht über den Internationalen Joseph Haydn-Kongreß Wien 1982, ed. Eva Badura-Skoda, 551-67. Munich, 1986. [ML410.H4 I6 1982]
Computer studies
Lewis Lockwood. "A stylistic investigation of the Masses of Josquin des Prez with the aid of the computer: a progress report." In Musicology and the computer: three symposia, 19-27.
Arthur Mendel. "Towards objective criteria for establishing chronology and authenticity: what help can the computer give?" Josquin des Pres, 297-308. [ML410 .D367 I6 1971]

Jan LaRue. "New directions for style analysis." In Musicology and the computer: three symposia, ed. Barry S. Brook, 194-7. New York, 1970. [ML3797.1 .M875]

John Morehen. Byrd's manuscript motets: A new perspective. Byrd studies, 51-62. Cambridge, 1992. [ML410.B99 B9]
John Morehen. "Statistics in the analysis of musical style." In Informatique et musique, 171-83.

Joachim Schlichte. "RISM--Musikincipitvergleich: Ein Ansatz zur Lösung des Incerta-Problems mit den Mitteln der EDV." In Opera incerta, 215-228. [ML3797 .O6]

Jan LaRue. A catalogue of 18th-century symphonies. Vol. 1. Thematic identifier. Bloomington, 1988. [Ref ML128.S98 L37]


8. Connoisseurship and the study of painting

Giovanni Morelli. Italian painters: critical studies of their works. 2 vols. London, 1892-3. [Fine Arts ND611 .M84213]
Richard Wollheim. "Giovanni Morelli and the origins of scientific connoisseurship." In On art and the mind, 177-201. Cambridge, Mass., 1974. [Fine Arts N71 .W864 1974]
Nelson Goodman. "Authenticity." The dictionary of art. 34 vols. New York, 1996. [Fine Arts Reference N31 .D5 1996; Main Library Research Collection N31 .D5 1996; available at http://www.groveart.com/tdaonline/search/ ]
Jaynie Anderson. "Connoisseurship. §1. The western world." The dictionary of art.
J. Bruyn. "The concept of school." In H. L. C. Jaffe, J. Storm van Leeuwen, L. H. van der Tweel, eds. Authentication in the visual arts: a multi-disciplinary symposium, 1-25. Amsterdam, 1979. [Fine Arts N8558 .A96]

J. Storm van Leeuwen. "The concept of pictology and its application to works by Frans Hals." In Authentication in the visual arts, 57-92.

9. Forgery

David Phillips. "Forgery." The dictionary of art.
Jack W. Meiland. "Originals, copies and aesthetic value." In Denis Dutton, ed. The forger's art: forgery and the philosophy of art , 115-30. Berkeley, 1983. [Fine Arts N8790 .F67 1983]
Dennis Dutton. "Artistic crimes." In The forger's art, 172-87.
Nelson Goodman. "Art and authenticity." In The forger's art, 93-114.

Hope B. Werness. "Han van Meegeren fecit." In The forger's art, 1-57.

Leonard B. Meyer. "Forgery and the anthropology of art." In Music, the arts, and ideas: patterns and predictions in twentieth-century culture. Chicago, 1967. Reprinted in The forgers' art, 77-92.

10. J. S. Bach flute sonatas

Robert L. Marshall. “J.S. Bach’s compositions for solo flute: a reconsideration of their authenticity and chronology.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 32 (1979): 463–98. Rev. in Marshall, The music of Johann Sebastian Bach: the sources, the style, the significance, 201–25. New York, 1989.

Robert L. Marshall. “Bach the progressive: observations on his later works.” Musical Quarterly 62 (1976): 313–57. Rev. in his The music of Johann Sebastian Bach: the sources, the style, the significance, 23–58. New York, 1989.

Frederick Neumann. “Bach: progressive or conservative and the authorship of the Goldberg aria.” Musical Quarterly 71 (1985): 281–94. Rev. in his New essays on performance practice, 195–208. Ann Arbor, 1989.

Jeanne Swack. “Quantz and the Sonata in E-flat major for flute and cembalo, BWV 1031.” Early Music 23 (1995): 31–53. [Exchange of letters with Ralph Leavis, vol. 24, no. 1:189]

Dominik Sackmann and Siegbert Rampe. "Bach, Berlin, Quantz und die Flötensonate Es-Dur (BWV 1031)." Bach-Jahrbuch 83 (1997): 51-85.

11. Pergolesi

Some references and readings

Marvin E. Paymer and Hermine W. Williams. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi: a guide to research. New York,1989. [Ref. ML134.P613 P6]

Marvin E. Paymer. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, 1710-1736 : a thematic catalogue of the opera omnia with an appendix listing omitted compositions. New York, 1977. [Ref. ML134 .P613 A35]

Barry S. Brook. "The Pergolesi complete works edition and the general problems of using internal analysis for determining authenticity Source." In Opera incerta: Echtheitsfragen als Problem musikwissenschaftlicher Gesamtausgaben, 319-331.[ML3797 .O6, on reserve]

Francesco Degrada, ed. Pergolesi studies. Studi pergolesiani. Stuyvesant, NY. 1986. [ML410.P29 S79]

Barry Brook and Marvin.E.Paymer: "The Pergolesi hand: a calligraphic study. " Notes 38 (1981-2): 550-78.


Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. Complete works. Opere complete. New York and Milan, 1986-. [M3 .P438]

Opera omnia di Giov. Batt. Pergolesi. Rome, 1942-. [M3 .P439]